Two quotes from the ‘Dallas Weather Examiner‘:
First of all, the warming has taken a vacation for about the past five or six years, which doesn’t make sense as CO2 increases every year.
Furthermore, 30 years is a darned short time span in which to draw any conclusion (from ice trends) on either cooling or warming!
Anthony Watts, (in a comment to a post where I remarked that Watts implies that the CO2 measurements made at Mauno Loa might not be reliable), said:
If you can point me to a source that demonstrates clearly that no Co2 outgassing from the Mauna Loa volcano reaches the instrumentation, I’ll gladly revise my post.
Well, there is no such source, because of course the CO2 reaches the instrumentation when the wind is coming from a particular direction. However, scientists are of course aware of that, and take that into account. There is even an FAQ at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography:
Isn’t the Mauna Loa record influenced by CO2 emitted by the volcano?
If one looks at the minute-by-minute data from Mauna Loa, one finds rare occasions when the CO2 is elevated from emissions from fumaroles upwind on the mountain. The fumaroles are emitting constantly, so the timing of the events depends on wind direction and not changes in volcanic activity. These events impact only a tiny faction of the data and are easily distinguished from rest of the record. The reported version of the Mauna Loa record has been “filtered” to remove these events, as well as other certain other local effects, as described in the early publications (see Keeling 1960 Tellus paper).
Keeling himself writes (1960):
At Mauno Loa Observatory, Hawaii, a less prominent variability has been found in approximately half of the records. This is attributed to release of carbon dioxide by nearby volcanic vents; combustion on the island associated with agricultural, industrial and domestic activities; and lower concentration of carbon dioxide transported to the station by upslope winds. The values reported here are averages of downslope winds or strong lateral winds when the concentration remained nearly constant for several hours or more.
In that paper Keeling also shows CO2 measurements from other locations, all in good agreements, and points to problems these measurements have, and how he accounted for them.
Global CO2 data are available here.
In the image to the left you see that even if the global temperatures are corrected for the ENSO effects, the temperatures have risen significantly since the 70’s.
In the image below from the National Snow and Ice Data Center you will see that the northern sea ice extent has been decreasing since at least 1980.
You also may want to click on the images to learn more if needed.
Now go to this excellent post byTim Lambert, or this little factoid on stratospheric cooling, and learn about the fingerprints that show the greenhouse signature, thus confirming the models. Take your time if necessary.
Groked it all?
Good. Then go to this tripe and detect 3 lies.
This picture from JPL shows that CO2 is pretty well mixed in the atmosphere. The mixing ratio is between 373 and 380 ppm in most places, it exceeds it at a few spots and it is lower at Antarctica. The colors exaggerate small differences which are certainly interesting, but do not seem to be very important for the greenhouse effect. Anthony Watts (Watts Up With That?) shows this image to show that supposedly CO2 is not well mixed. But overall, compared with the preindustrial level of 280 ppm, it is relatively uniformly distributed. Watts complains:
My question is: how does this global variance translate into the phrase “well-mixed” when used to describe global CO2 distribution? It would seem that if it were truly “well-mixed”, we’d see only minor variances on the order of a couple of PPM. Yet clearly we have significant regional and hemispheric variance.
And yet, “minor variances on the order of a couple of PPM” is exactly what we see.
Watts also repeats the old canard implies that since CO2 were made on Mount Loa, which is a volcano, they could not be reliable, but actually measurements are made globally – and the graphic above, that Watts shows in the same blog entry, shows that the measurements agree with the satellite data. Also, observe the remarkable absence of higher mixing ratios at locations with volcanic activity, for example Iceland or Hawaii.
So, Watt’s wrong?
Update: See also Mauno Loa is a volcano, so what?
The logic of deniers works something like this:
- Al Gore does something, like using a lot of electricity
- … bzzzz ….
- therefore, anthropogenic global warming is false. QED.
They (the deniers) also lie a lot. Or they cannot calculate percentages. Maybe both. Like, they say Al Gore used 10% more electricity in 2007 than in 2006. Although it was 213,210 kWh in 2007, and 221,000 kWh in 2006. Which is 3.6% less, as Tim Lambert noted.
They (the deniers) also make strange comparisons. Like, comparing the yearly consumption of Al Gore with the average monthly consumption. That just sounds better.
Deniers also deny a lot. Like, not telling that Al Gore’s house had been renovated until November, that he installed solar panels or that he offsets his carbon emissions. Well, maybe because they don’t understand how that works.
Disclaimer: I use a few hundred times more electricity per year than the average US citizen per day. Or so.
See also the Christian Science Monitor.
I found a few articles from last year (and because this will pop up next year again, I’ll bookmark them here):
Another relatively unknown feature of openssh is connection sharing. This enables you to reuse an existing ssh connection for another one. The second (and subsequent) connections(s) (called slaves) will use the same TCP connection as the first one (called master). The advantages are that the slave connections are initiated faster and that there is no password needed. And both these improvements make bash tab completion very fast. For example if you have an ssh session already running to a remote host you can use tab completion from another shell for scp, and it finds the files on the remote host.
Setting it up is simple: in your .ssh/config, add these lines:
Replace ‘oku’ with your user name.
The ‘ControlMaster auto’ option tells ssh to check if there is already a master, and if not set itself to the master. Otherwise, be a slave and use the master’s socket. The next line tells ssh how to name the unix socket it needs to create. In this example, it is composed of the remote user name, the host name and the port number, and will be created in the user directory in the subdirectory ‘.ssh’.
I use this for years now. It usually works fine, but there are a few disadvantages:
- when the ssh connection unexpectedly dies (for example, a cold hardware reset), it leaves the socket behind. When you then try to login again, ssh complains that it cannot create the socket. You need to manually delete it.
- when there are slaves, you cannot terminate the master session without terminating the slave connections.
- if you do port forwarding, this works only for the master – if you try it with a slave, you don’t see an error message though. This is pretty annoying if you don’t know it. I think this also applies to ssh tunneling. This is reported as a bug in Debian.
Despite these flaws, I still find it very useful.
You will also find information here, and of course in the man pages.
These people are happy. And I feel happy for them. Congratulations.